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Ethics of Animal Use in Research

Chris Cramer
Institutional Official

Frances Lawrenz
Deputy Institutional Official
(612) 625-2046

Signs of Acute Pain in Animals

  • vocalization
  • attempts to escape the stimulus
  • aggressive responses
  • increased heart and respiratory rates
  • anorexia or shaking

Signs of Chronic Pain

  • weight loss
  • poor or unkempt hair coats
  • depression or lethargy
  • general debilitation